Love it or hate it, long exposure photography is a hugely popular genre in landscape, seascape & fine art architectural photography. It seems to have progressed from a fad to a style of photography that is here to stay long term. Long Exposure Photography can be classified as any photograph with an exposure time longer than 1 or 2 seconds. For this article, I will concentrate solely on B&W Seascape Extreme Long Exposure Photography i.e. 30 seconds and longer. Hopefully by the end of this, you will have a little better understanding of how to shoot & process long exposure seascape images of this nature. I’m by no means an expert but I am happy to pass on the knowledge I have gained in this genre.
Why use long exposure?
Why not? In my humble opinion, this is an extremely fascinating genre of photography which helps the photographer take a mundane every day scene and transform it into something completely different (with the right conditions). The results are amazing and when handled correctly you can create beautiful & subtle fine art long exposure images that are out of this world. It has similarities to the way Infra-red photography transforms images into something the eye cannot see. I call it “Virtual Reality”.
An added bonus for the photographer is that these images can be captured at any time of day which helps extend our shooting times away from only the golden hours of sunset and sunrise. Clouds turn to streaks of mist racing across the sky. Raging waters and high waves smooth into a fine mist and instill a sense of calm & stillness to the finished image when the reality could have been a rough windy day. The effects of long exposure photography help convey a mood in my images which could not have been captured via normal landscape / seascape photography techniques.
Best Subjects for long exposure photography?
This comes down to personal taste. I like images with a strong foreground static subject which helps anchor the image such as a rock formation, old piers & posts, branches, old boats, walls, sea defences, etc. There are some artists who use the movement of objects such as boats to emphasize long exposure even further – just google long exposure Venice for example.
In all honesty, anything can be used and it does not matter if it is modern or ancient. Composition plays a huge role in making or breaking long exposure images because they can become so minimalist in nature. Pay close attention to where objects & horizons, etc are placed. Don’t be afraid to break the traditional composition rules as long as it works. Pre-visualization of the finished article is a major part of the jigsaw. With practice you can interpret how your finished image may look long before hitting the shutter release – this can come down to cloud type & % of cloud cover, weather, strength of wind, height of waves, exposure length, etc.
Best Time Of Day For Long Exposure Photography
Again, focusing mainly on seascapes – this can be anytime of the day depending on your personal preference. The great thing about long exposure photography is that we are not restricted to either end of the day. I find sunset and sunrise particularly difficult as the light is changing quickly. You can set your shutter as per the conditions at the time only to find that they have changed considerably by the time you are getting towards the end of your exposure. If the light is fading you will find your image under exposed and vice versa as the light increases at sunrise. I find it a little easier when the light levels are more consistent.
Any camera with Bulb exposure mode – this mode allows the photographer to hold the shutter open for an indefinite amount of time as needed.
Any lens will do – I personally use a wide angle zoom for 90% of my work.
Sturdy Tripod & Shutter Release
Neutral Density Filter Set ranging from Full ND filters to Split graduated nd filters. I use the Lee range of filters including the Big Stopper & Little Stopper, 3 stop ND Filter, Hard & Soft Graduated Filter sets & the Lee Polarizer Filter. These can be combined to suit any conditions you may come across in the field.
A timer – I use my phone – you can use an external or in-camera inter-velometer and set this manually but I like to keep it simple.
Lastly – a nice big cloth & some form of clamp/grip device.
If there’s one small piece of advice I can impart to anyone new to landscape photography and wanting to make fine art long exposure images, it this – learn to walk before you try to tun…..
I have been on field trips with beginners using extreme long exposure filters but they have not a clue as how to balance the light between the sky and foreground. Take the time to learn how to use split graduated filters correctly before driving yourself mad trying to get a long exposure image. You may stand there for anything up to 10 minutes only to discover your exposure is all wrong. It will prove a very slow learning process if you try to do this with a big stopper filter in front of your camera every time. Once you have got to grips with this, then you should start introducing the stronger filters.
This is a step by step guide as to how I work in the field for daytime long exposure landscape & seascape images. I start by finding a subject I think will work and the first thing I do is set about finding my composition. I focus on pre-visualizing the foreground detail, wind direction & speed, type of cloud etc. I try to make sure I have my composition right because it takes a long time to make each image so a couple of minutes here could save you taking several shots. It is only then that I set-up my tripod and place the camera on it.
I focus manually using live view placing my point of focus about 1/3 of the way into the frame. Alternatively, you can use hyper-distance focus techniques. Once focused I double check live view mode for any distractions and then knock it off. I also ensure VR/IS is turned off on my lens.
I choose the graduated neutral density filters I feel are necessary as if I was taking a normal seascape image and double check the position of my grads against the horizon etc. I then fire some test shots do determine the correct exposure. I like to expose to the right – you can find out why here. I then calculate how long my final shutter speed needs to be and set the relevant settings in my camera. This can be done by consulting you Lee Filter chart which comes with the Big & Little Stoppers. I keep this attached to the front of my filter wallet at all times. Alternatively you can use a phone app such as “Longtime Exposure Calculator” which will achieve the same result. My typical settings are Bulb Exposure, ISO 64, F8-11, Mirror-Up & Noise Reduction turned off. It is only then that I place my Big Stopper Filter. I always ensure this is placed closest to the lens out of all the filters applied. This is because it has a foam gasket on the inside to stop any light leaks getting behind it which will cause light pollution and destroy your image. At this stage, you will not be able to see through your view finder any longer which is the reason I do all my focus work and apply split grads in advance. Finally I close off the eyepiece on my camera and cover it with a lens cloth. I clip the lens cloth tight with a large paper clip. This just adds one last level of protection from light leak. If I am in a really lazy mood sometimes I don’t bother.
Trip the shutter, sit back and enjoy the scenery!!!
If it is very windy, I advise weighing down the tripod with your camera bag and maybe even blocking the wind from the camera with your own body to help ensure there is no camera shake during the exposure.
Calibrating Your Filters
Sounds complicated – right. In reality its very simple. Because my Lee Big Stopper is made by hand, each batch can be slightly different. Initially I found that my exposures always looked a little underexposed even though I had followed the guideline exposures as per the chart provided. I originally thought that this was due to light conditions changing as my exposures progressed. In time, I realized this was because my filter was not a true 10 stops of filtration. Some tests at home proved definitively that my filter actually gave 10.5 stops of light. So if my chart suggested 2 minutes I need to give 3 minutes and so on. My problems stopped overnight once I understood this. On the other hand, my Little Stopper is perfect to the second every single time.
Lee have recently brought out the new Super Stopper (15 Stops). Whilst I am a big fan of the brand, this is one I more than likely won’t buy. By combining the 3, 6 & 10 stop filters and a polarizer, I am more than covered to extend long exposures as I require in most situations.
I historically always used the in camera noise reduction feature when taking long exposures. Basically, the camera takes a 2nd frame of equal length to your exposure immediately after you have taken your image. This is called a “Dark Frame” or “Dark Frame Subtraction” where only a black image is taken. It allows the cameras software to find out where the hot pixels are and then eliminate them in camera. The disadvantage to this is that it doubles your exposure times, so five minutes become 10 minutes and so on. You can see now why I recommend making sure your composition is spot on before you start to shoot – a couple of composition changes could take an hour of photography.
I shoot differently today. Why?
I first started my long exposure quest with a Nikon D7000 which is a horrifically noisy camera. I had no other choice but to use noise reduction or the images looked like swiss cheese. Since updating to the Nikon d810 which is a full frame camera, I have discovered I can get away with more without engaging the in camera noise reduction feature using this feature. This reduces my time standing around waiting on the image to appear on the back of my screen. I also use Lightroom & Topaz Denoise to solve any problems I come across. My advice is to test both ways for your own camera and then make a personal decision as to which works best for you at the present time.
Cloud & Wind Combined
Cloud and wind play a huge role on the end result of a long exposure image. You cannot consider one without also looking at the other as they both work together. First you need to determine the amount of cloud cover that there is. Heavy cloud cover leads to smooth silky skies with little detail or contrast after a long exposure has been created as the cloud turns to a smooth mist. You may wish to shorten your exposure slightly to keep some visible detail in the sky. Broken clouds with blue skies can lead to a more pronounced streaky effect as the white clouds contrast against the blue sky which can be darkened to almost black in post processing. You then need to consider the direction the wind is blowing and how fast it is making the clouds move. If the wind is blowing from your side, it will create horizontal layers in the sky of your image. If it is blowing towards you or from behind you, it will create vertical streaks. The strength of wind combined with length of long exposure will in effect determine a huge part in how your sky appears. Once you understand these effects, you can start to pre-visualise what will appear on the back of your screen when the image is made and put it to use to get the best compositions.
Post Processing a Long Exposure Photo
This is where the magic really happens…. I simply load my images into Lightroom and go through my usual seascape post processing techniques. You can read about my standard techniques by clicking here.
Once finished I convert into B&W and transfer the photo into photoshop for further editing. Once I’m in here I start to use a couple of adjustment layers & masks to bring out the drama in the image. I also use Silver Efex pro to help bring the image I can envisage to life. I typically start by creating 3 new layers for the foreground, sky and water and label each of these so I know exactly what each layer is. Each layer can have a very different purpose which is hard to explain in writing so I will demonstrate using an image I created at the Giants Causeway.
I had gotten out of bed at 2am to make the long drive north to ensure I was on the causeway in plenty of time for sunrise. The forecast was for broken cloud so I had pre-visualised a lovely colourful low light sunrise photograph. Unfortunately, the weather report was not accurate and I got heavy cloud cover instead with no sunrise colour to speak of. I had no other choice but to try and work with it and create something different to what I had made the journey for.
The wind was very strong and blowing straight at me which left the water very choppy. It was difficult to find a safe location. I managed to find a nice composition with interest from front to back with the wind blowing on my back. I knew this would create lovely strong vertical streaks of light. You can see the before and after images above.
Step 1: I copy the original layer and complete any cloning, clean up that is required.
Step 2: I go into silver Efexs and create a sky, water & foreground layer simply by choosing the different settings I think will work for each area of the image. For example, I like dark contrast in my sky so for this I would look and the Low Key Preset and adjust it from there. I like structure and detail in my foreground so I pick a setting that suits this. Then once loaded as separate layers back in photoshop, I simply mask in the pieces I want. Sometimes I create a very slight Gaussian Blur on the water layer just to make it look even more smooth. I have seen some people recommend using a motion blur to help heighten the movement effect in the clouds but I have never had a need to do this as yet.
Step 3: I create a 50% Grey layer (Soft Light Blend Mode) and just lighten and darken the areas I feel need some additional work to draw the viewers eye to or away from an area. You can read about Dodging & Burning Here.
Step 4: Hit save and I’m generally done.
Don’t Limit Yourself
None of us need to work exclusively in B&W for these types of images. They also look wonderful in colour so do not be afraid to experiment.